|UNIT 35||Addition and contrast
|A||In addition, furthermore, etc. ("and")|
When you add a second piece of information in a sentence to support the first piece of information, you can use and, e.g., "The food is excellent and the prices are reasonable." When you put this information in two sentences, you can use these linking words and phrases:
The food is excellent. Furthermore / What's more, the prices are reasonable. The fixed price menu is $10, which is very reasonable.
In addition, you get a free beverage.
The restaurant has a reputation for excellent food. The prices are also reasonable. The food is excellent in that restaurant. The prices are reasonable as well / too.
Note: Furthermore and in addition are more common in written English.
|B||Although, in spite of, etc. ("but")|
When you want to contrast two pieces of information in a single sentence and say that the second fact is surprising after the first, you can use these linking words:
She still won the game, although / though / even though she had a bad knee. They still went out in spite of the fact that it was raining hard / in spite of the rain. He still failed the exam despite the fact that he'd studied hard / despite studying hard.
Note: In the above examples you can also begin the sentence with the linking word(s), e.g., "Although she had a bad knee, she still won the game."
It is common to use still in these sentences to emphasize the surprise (as in the examples).
After although, though, or even though, you must use a clause [subject + verb], e.g., Although she had a bad knee,.../ Although her knee was bad,...
Whereas shows that something is true of one thing but not true of another.
Pat is very careful, whereas Chris makes lots of mistakes.
The south is hot and dry, whereas the north gets a lot of rain.
You can use however or on the other hand to contrast two ideas in two sentences. However is more appropriate when the second sentence is surprising after the first.
I don't agree with all of her methods. However, she is a good teacher.
We didn't like the hotel at all. However, we still enjoyed ourselves. Sam liked the movie a lot. Joe, however / on the other hand, thought it was stupid. Most big cats, such as tigers and leopards, are very solitary creatures. Lions, however / on the other hand, spend much of their time in groups.